[Ec47] Carbon Sequestration

AUTHOR: Marcos Zotes López

Carbon Sequestration
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Enhanced oil recovery    Ocean storage
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CROSSLINKS:

Database:
[Ec46]
Prototypes:
[CRO]
Scenario Games: Action Plan: External:

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ACTORS/AGENTS
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DESCRIPTION
Carbon Dioxide released during fossil fuel consumption is a major source of greenhouse gases. In order to manage the future climatic changes, the CO2 must be removed from the flue gas and be permanently stored. The Kyoto protocol has made reducing CO2 emission in order to control the overall levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere an international priority. Several methods for CO2 sequestration have been proposed: 
1. Sequestration in geological formations including depleted oil and gas reservoirs, coal seams, and deep brine-fields. Among these, pumping CO2 into reservoirs has been exploited commercially in the US for enhanced oil recovery.  
2. A potential CO2 storage option is to inject captured CO2 directly into the deep ocean. This can be achieved by transporting CO2 via pipelines or ships to an ocean storage site, where it is injected into the water column of the ocean or at the sea floor. The dissolved and dispersed CO2 would subsequently become part of the global carbon cycle.  Ocean storage has not yet been demonstrated at a pilot scale, and is still in the research phase.
3. Carbon dioxide can also be converted into chemicals, fuels and polymers and there are technologies available today to achieve this. Chemicals based on CO2 could contribute to reducing carbon emissions. CO2 as a building block in long-lived polymers can be viewed as a mechanism to sequester carbon in the long-term. 
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RESEARCH AGENDA